PAGE 1 Churinga Publishing v
Books and publications on the interaction of systems in real time by A. C. Sturt
Economics, politics, science, archaeology. Page uploaded 14 January 2002, minor edit 30 June 2004.


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The Timeless Universe
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PD PRINT VERSION II. The Redshift Reinterpreted

by A. C. Sturt cont.


PART I

1. Homogeneity through Time

2. The Rules

3.Model of the Expanding Universe

4.Stochastic Regeneration and Redistribution Model

Table - Stages of the Expansion Model

PART II

2. Redshift in the Stochastically Regenerated Universe

Footnote 1 - Differentiation of Space

Footnote 2 - Observational Frameworks of Time

Footnote 3 - Light Frequency Compensation Mechanism of Individual Atoms

Footnote 4 - Redshift and Rotation of Celestial Bodies

PART III

The Meaning of Mass

PART IV

The Redshift Exponential

1. Redshift in The Expanding Universe - The Conventional View

The velocity of stars is regularly calculated from the shift in the wavelength of light which they emit. The wavelengths of light emitted by a particular element on Earth, when it drops back from its excited to its ground state, are known. The same pattern in light received on Earth from a star indicates the presence of that element on or in the star. However, for light received from virtually all stars this pattern is shifted towards the red end of the spectrum , whence the term red shift. Different stars have different magnitudes of redshift.

The redshift of a star is taken to mean that the star is moving away from the Earth. In general the greater the redshift, the greater the velocity of the star away from the Earth. The waves of light are in effect spread out by the movement of the star away from the Earth, that is away from the wavefronts of the light which they have emitted. From a knowledge of the velocity of light, the velocity of the star can be calculated.

What is surprising about this procedure is that the star can be observed to recede from the wavefront of the light which it has emitted. The velocity of electromagnetic waves in a vacuum is a constant. It is the same whether the observer and/or the source of the radiation is moving. Or stated differently, the velocity of light in vacuo is the same in any direction, the same for all inertial observers and independent of any motion of the body emitting the light. This has been confirmed by numerous observations of light from the Sun, our own star, and in many laboratory experiments. Moreover, the velocity of light in vacuo cannot be exceeded. Nothing travels faster than the speed of light. The same must be true on the star itself, because the velocity of light is a fundamental parameter which is homogeneous through time and space.

The implication is that we can observe from the Earth what we could not observe if we were on the star itself. That does not suggest homogeneity through time or space. Nevertheless the redshift is used to justify the hypothesis that the Universe is expanding.

The basis for the calculation is the Hubble equation. Velocity is proportional to redshift: the constant of proportionality is the Hubble constant H. When redshifts were first discovered, it was observed that galaxies showing the largest redshifts were further away. By the first of the preceding arguments, the larger the redshift, the greater the velocity at which it was receding from Earth. The corollary was that the further the stars were from Earth, the faster they were receding. Hence the expanding Universe on the balloon surface model. Presumably the same reasoning applies to all other heavenly bodies or phenomena, those we can observe, and those we cannot observe, including black holes associated with galaxies and dark matter.

It is the extrapolation of the observations from distance to encompass velocity too which is open to question.






conventional view




velocity from redshift




Laws of Special Relativity

observed on Earth




why not on stars?




Hubble equation



doubt
Copyright A. C. Sturt 27 September 2001 continued on Page 6
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