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Churinga Publishing

 

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Books and publications on the interaction of systems in real time by A. C. Sturt
Economics, politics, science, archaeology. Page uploaded 14 January 2002, minor edit 2 July 2004

 



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The Timeless Universe

 

IV. The Redshift Exponential

 

 

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by A. C. Sturt cont

 

 

 

 

 

 



PART I

 

1. Homogeneity through Time

2. The Rules

3.Model of the Expanding Universe

4.Stochastic Regeneration and Redistribution Model

Table - Stages of the Expansion Model

PART II

1. Redshift - Conventional View

Footnote 1 - Differentiation of Space

Footnote 2 - Observational Frameworks of Time

Footnote 3 - Light Frequency compensation Mechanism of Individual Atoms

Footnote 4 - Redshift and Rotation of Celestial Bodies

PART III

The Meaning of Mass

PART IV

The Redshift Exponential

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART I

 

1. Homogeneity through Time

2. The Rules

3.Model of the Expanding Universe

4.Stochastic Regeneration and Redistribution Model

Table - Stages of the Expansion Model

PART II

1. Redshift - Conventional View

Footnote 1 - Differentiation of Space

Footnote 2 - Observational Frameworks of Time

Footnote 3 - Light Frequency compensation Mechanism of Individual Atoms

Footnote 4 - Redshift and Rotation of Celestial Bodies

PART III

The Meaning of Mass

PART IV

The Redshift Exponential

 

 

 

 

The Timeless Universe II. The Redshift Reinterpreted presented equations for the distance, velocity and acceleration of sources of light from an observer in the model of a Universe which is in equilibrium, but stochastically regenerated. The assumption inherent in such equations was that wavelength increased by a constant quantity, say a given number of nanometres, per unit of distance travelled, whether kilometre or light year. The implication of this was that light which had travelled far from its source, and had changed wavelength, still carried with it the value of this quantity, which had been impressed on it as soon as it left the source. Such an interaction with a Universal field, which is what the paper proposes as the cause of redshift, would be difficult to envisage.

 

It seems much more likely that the increase of wavelength depends on the conditions in which the light finds itself at each stage of its journey. It would then be the ratio of the increase in wavelength to its current value which is proportional to an increment of distance travelled.

 

1. Wavelength

 

If the wavelength is λ, and the increase of wavelength is when the light travels a distance dx through the field, then:

 

 

where α is a constant for the interaction of light with the field concerned.

 

From this it can be seen that:

 

and

 

 

 

When x = 0 i.e. as the light leaves the source, the value of the exponential is 1, and λ takes its initial value λo.

 

The complete equation is therefore:

 

 

 

 

i.e. there is an exponential increase of wavelength with distance travelled.

 

 

2. Frequency

 

Similarly, if the light is described by its frequency f rather than its wavelength, then

 

λf = constant

f = constant/λ

and so

 

If the frequency of the light was f0 when it left the source, and f is its frequency at any stage, then

 

 

3. Distance

 

The distance of a source from an observer can be calculated from the equation for redshift if the value of the constant α is known, provided it is accepted that the frequency of light emitted by an excited atom at the source is the same as the frequency of light emitted by an excited atom of the same element on Earth i.e. the frequency of light emitted by atoms is homogeneous through time, and hence space. If λ is the wavelength of light from a source observed on Earth, and λ0 is the wavelength of light from the excited atom of the same element measured in the laboratory, then

 

 

 

By substitution for observed λ,

 

 

Rearranging,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Therefore,

 

distance,

 

velocity,

and acceleration

 

 


 

 

 

straight line redshift versus distance the assumption

 

 

 

 

 

more likely relationship of dλ to λ

 

 

 

 

 

 

dλ/λ proportional to distance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

exponential increase of λ with distance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

exponential decrease of f with distance

 

 

light on stars same as light on Earth

 

homogeneous through time

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

measurement of:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

distance of source

 

 

 

 

 

 

velocity of source

 

 

 

 

 

 

acceleration of source

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright A. C. Sturt 27 September 2001

continued on Page 8

 

 

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