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Books and publications on the interaction of systems in real time by A. C. Sturt
Economics, politics, science, archaeology. Page uploaded 27 November 2004


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The Origin of Quanta - A Proposed New Decomposition



of the Phenomena of the Physical World

by A. C. Sturt














1. The Anatomy of a Contradiction

2. The New Model

3. A Schematic Representation

4. Quanta and the Emission/reception of Energy

5. Compatibility with Fundamental Laws

6. Black Body Radiation

7. Wave/particle Duality

8. Einstein’s Equation

9. The Medium of Space

10. Compatibility with Previous Papers

a.      The Special Theory effect

b.      The redshift

c.      Inertial Resistance Field

d.      Stochastic regeneration

11. Possible Tests of the Model

a.      Loss of energy in space

b.      The Inertial Field effect

c.      Energy pulses

d.      Time dilation


List of Appendices and References

Appendix 1 Redshift – a Suggested Experiment












1. The Anatomy of a Contradiction

2. The New Model

3. A Schematic Representation

4. Quanta and the Emission/reception of Energy

5. Compatibility with Fundamental Laws

6. Black Body Radiation

7. Wave/particle Duality

8. Einstein’s Equation

9. The Medium of Space

10. Compatibility with Previous Papers

e.      The Special Theory effect

f.        The redshift

g.      Inertial Resistance Field

h.      Stochastic regeneration

11. Possible Tests of the Model

e.      Loss of energy in space

f.        The Inertial Field effect

g.      Energy pulses

h.      Time dilation


List of Appendices and References

Appendix 1 Redshift – a Suggested Experiment















So then always that knowledge is worthiest … which considereth the simple forms of things, which are few in number, and the degrees and co-ordinations whereof make all this variety.

Francis Bacon





There is a fundamental contradiction in the model of the physical world seen through the eyes of present-day physics. On the one hand there is the assumption of homogeneity through time, which underlies all modern science. On the other there is the assertion that under some conditions matter and energy are interchangeable. They cannot both be correct, in spite of speculations about uncertainty, the difficulties of observation etc. This paper proposes a new model which comprehends both matter and energy in a single, consistent framework.



1. The Anatomy of a Contradiction


Homogeneity through time is so embedded in scientific thinking that it is scarcely even mentioned. A hydrogen atom is considered to be identical to every other hydrogen atom at any time; no other assumption would be sustainable. This must also mean that it is identical to any other hydrogen atom in any other part of the Universe. Thus homogeneity through time is inseparable from homogeneity through space. In the same way, at the molecular level you cannot tell one sample of absolutely pure water from another except by the bottles which contain them. That is what is meant by absolutely pure water. The water molecule is homogeneous through time.


This principle extends downward to every constituent part of the physical world: electrons, protons, neutrons and, below them in the hierarchy, the whole gamut of component particles down to the most fundamental building blocks of all. Any new particle which is identified in accelerators, or is postulated to exist in the galactic regions of the Universe will also be considered a species in its own right: it will be homogeneous through time and space.


The entire Universe is therefore considered to be composed of such particles in various forms of association. More precisely, it is composed of particles, either as individuals or combined with other particles to form the hierarchy of larger entities which we call protons, neutrons, atoms, molecules etc. All the larger entities or particles are composed of the particles lower down the hierarchy. They should be described as being ‘composed’ of such particles, rather than simply consisting of them, which implies an arithmetical relationship, because the particles undergo interaction with each other when they form the larger entities, even though they retain their identity. The larger entities cannot be assumed to be the sum of the parts either as a whole or in specific properties, because of these interactions. They are composed of both the component particles and the interactions between them. The strength of the interaction depends on the nature of the component parts.


Energy, on the other hand, is what makes processes work or systems perform. It is classified as thermal energy, potential energy, kinetic energy, electrical energy, electromagnetic energy and so on. Electromagnetic energy itself consists of packets of energy called quanta, which are themselves considered to be homogeneous through time.


All forms of energy, whatever their category, are equivalent, as expressed in the First Law of Thermodynamics. It is this equivalence which permits the infinite variety of systems in the physical world to be compared in quantitative terms, whatever particles they contain.


However, it remains to be answered how particles which are homogeneous through time can under some conditions become energy which drives processes. What exactly does this mean? What happens to a particle during this transformation? Is Einstein’s equation which links energy and mass to be taken to mean that one phenomenon can mutate readily into the other? Or is it intended to indicate the maximum energy which could be derived from a composition of particles of a given mass?



2. The New Model


The model proposed in this paper is that:


  • All matter is composed of particles which are homogeneous through time. They neither come into or disappear from existence.


  • All changes in matter are the composition of new particulate structures by the mechanism of decomposing existing structures and/or recomposing them into new structures.


  • All energy results from the vibration of the bonds between the particles.


The bonds between particles result from opposing attractive and repulsive forces. The configuration of particles in relation to each other at any time is determined by the balance of forces between them. Some forces may act predominantly at short range, others over longer distances. The strength of the bond between particles at any time will be the resultant of all such forces, the balance of which will therefore vary with the separation between the particles.


Bond energies are nothing new in chemistry or spectroscopy, and the vibration of atoms is widely used as a description of thermal energy, but here the term is much wider and deeper. Thus in the new model:


  • Thermal energy is not the vibration of particles but the bonds between them. For heat the two can be considered as alternative descriptions of the same process.


  • What is normally called ‘potential energy’ is in fact actual energy, because it resides in the bonds between particles. It is potential only in the sense that it can readily be transformed into another form. It is also easily calculable. So a mass suspended on a string has energy in the form of vibrations of the bonds between its particles and the particles of the earth, and of course in the tension of the string. If it is resting on a plateau prior to rolling downhill, its energy also lies in the vibration of the bonds between its own particles and those in the surface on which it rests i.e. compression energy. When it starts to roll downhill, it will transfer this energy into vibrations of successive sets of bonds between the particles of which the slope is made, compressing and releasing them as it rolls by.


  • Electrical energy can be readily understood as the vibration of bonds resulting from attractive and repulsive electrical charges.


  • Kinetic energy also fits the model, if it is analysed precisely. Kinetic energy of a particulate composition involves velocity, but this can only be specified with respect to another particulate structure. Otherwise the question arises: which velocity? That is, does it include the velocity of particles on the surface of the Earth or the orbit of the Earth around the Sun? In fact there are many ‘extraneous’ velocities to which all particles are subject, some known, some unknown. The answer must be to specify the velocity of the particulate composition with respect to other particles in the system under consideration.


However, even when a value for velocity is established, kinetic energy simply means that the particulate structure is thought or observed to be moving. It is only when the particulate structure begins to interact with another structure that the kinetic energy is revealed i.e. when the bonds are compressed and stretched and begin to vibrate. Until that point it is just a calculation.


  • Electromagnetic energy is not energy at all in this model; there are no particles, and so no bonds between them to vibrate. There is no link between the source of electromagnetic energy and its receptor. Indeed the source does not even know that the receptor exists, which is quite different from the phenomenon of gravity, by which masses are linked in a mutual attraction which can be set out in an equation.


It may be objected that photons are particles, though this could be countered by the suggestions that they are really waves. They may in fact, as argued below, be neither the one or the other. What can be admitted is that they are discrete packets which have determinate properties, and that they transmit energy from one place to another, which is not at all the same thing. But more of that below.


  • It follows from the model that everything which is not an electromagnetic phenomenon (i.e. light) must be a particle. It must have the characteristics of homogeneity through time. It can neither appear nor disappear, but only be incorporated into a new composition.



3. A Schematic Representation


The simplest way to describe the model is to use statistical representation. This avoids the need to worry about types and sizes of particle (i.e. atoms, protons, neutrons, electrons, quarks, whatever), or the feasibility of bonding, which would be of concern in chemistry or particle physics etc. It might even be used to denote particles which are no more than suspected at the time of the analysis. The methodology is to write down all the possible structures in terms of their interactions, and worry about the implications later.


This procedure avoids preconceptions, which may be misleading, that only certain types of interaction are possible, and any discrepancy must be due to some other phenomenon, such as the translation of mass into energy, which begs the question. This may arise from experiments which, as is the normal practice, assume independence between different particles of matter in measuring their properties i.e. no interactions between them. If it is later verified that specific interactions are not significant, they can always be discarded.


If there were just two particles X and Y, the interaction between them which would vibrate to produce energy would be XY. Energy in or from the interaction XY would be characteristic of X and Y and their composite structure XY.


If however the particle Y was itself composed of four other particles, A, B, C and D, the interactions would multiply rapidly as follows. Each of the four ‘sub-particles’ would interact in twos, threes and as a unit of four, as well as with X i.e. all the possible combinations, and so the interactions would be:


















There is thus the potential for a wide range of particle structures to vibrate, say from the sub-structure consisting of particles A, B and X, which would be represented by the interaction ABX, to the entire structure itself, with all the particles vibrating as a unit, in this case represented by the interaction ABCDX.


Each interaction would in principle be capable of producing a vibration which was characteristic of the substructure or structure of particles concerned. A particulate structure of any size would soon have a very large number of interactions.







the contradiction














new model

particulate structures

formed and reformed

energy caused by vibration of bonds between particles


redefinition of forms of energy


























everything is particles or electromagnetic transmission of energy of vibration











schematic representation of interactions between particles






























each bond produces its characteristic vibration




Copyright A. C. Sturt 27 September 2001

continued on Page 2



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