Books and publications on the
interaction of systems in real time by A. C. Sturt
by A. C. Sturt
A new model which comprises the whole range of physical phenomena has been developed in a series of papers written during 2001-2005. The theme that links the papers is the hypothesis of a medium of space which has electromagnetic properties. The assumptions of current theory are examined, alternative interpretations are put forward for current observations and additional measurements are proposed to support the new model. This summary draws together the essential features of the model in a logical progression to form a coherent alternative model of physics.
The new model is
essentially Newtonian and deterministic with effects linked measurably to
The result is a simple system of the Universe composed only of particles of mass, the medium of space and electromagnetic radiation, in which energy and mass are not interchangeable. The Universe is infinite in time and space, and regenerated stochastically part by part by continual agglomeration of particles of mass moving under the influence of gravitational attraction, eventual reduction to fundamental particles and redistribution by explosion to begin the cycle again.
Alternative explanations are proposed to account for apparent exceptions such as the slowing down of atomic clocks in space and nuclear binding energy.
The current model
of physics began with
Following on from
However, problems arose in the early twentieth century when observation suggested that light had a constant velocity in vacuo, irrespective of the velocity of source or receptor, which implied that Newtonian relative velocities were not applicable. This was compounded when atoms were found to consist of protons, neutrons and electrons, which showed behaviour that apparently could not be explained by the laws of mechanics, and required uncertainty, probability distributions etc.
was found to cause electrical current to flow in some materials, suggesting
that light was composed of particles, each of which could individually
displace an electron from the material in the manner of a missile. This was
never reconciled with the wave theory, and the phenomenon has ever since been
glossed over as “wave/particle duality”. Light was shown also to be emitted
in packets or quanta which were related by precise but arbitrary rules to
atomic structure. This evolved into quantum physics via Bohr’s theory of the
atom. Inexplicably, the velocity of light in vacuo
appeared to be a limiting velocity for particles of mass. This velocity could
not be exceeded, whereas
The debate about these contradictions resulted in the Theory of Relativity, which led to the whole new model of relativistic physics. Newtonian physics was reduced to a special case which was relevant only at velocities which were low compared to the velocity of light.
The present paper
suggests that, however useful the new ideas have proved to be, they were in
fact based on a misinterpretation of the experimental evidence from the very
beginning. It is shown that there are other explanations of the same evidence
which are feasible. The result of these explanations is a completely new
model of physics, which is much closer to
The new model of physics is argued through step by step below, beginning with the groundwork of clarifying the terms and assumptions of the current model, and culminating in a Universal theory.
1. Dimensions and the Special Theory.
The Special Theory of Relativity was based on two fundamental hypotheses. The first was that the velocity of light in vacuo was constant irrespective of the motion of the source or the receptor. The second was that the equations of physics must remain unchanged, because they express the laws of physics which are invariant, whatever the velocity. In fact the equations were considered to be the actual laws of physics.
Given these hypotheses, if Newtonian relative velocities did not apply at velocities approaching the speed of light, it must be because the dimensions of the equation themselves were changing. There is no other possibility, since the only other component of an equation is numbers, the magnitudes of which are indisputably invariant by definition. Moreover the dimensions must all be changing together.
It is implicit in the analysis that vacuum itself does not dilate. This can be seen by considering light in the form of particles, or photons. When two photons are travelling along the same straight line in vacuo, they travel at the same velocity. The distance between them remains constant, because photons are independent and do not interact with each other. The same reasoning applies to light waves emitted in pulses; the distance between pulses does not dilate.
The constant velocity of light, which seems to have been substantiated many times, is a fundamental problem for Newtonian physics, and for that matter wave/particle duality. If the source and receptor are racing headlong towards each other, why does this not appear in the velocity of light which is observed?
But it is also a problem for Relativity. Even though they are travelling at the speed of light, the distance between photons or pulses does not increase to infinity, as the dilation of the length dimension says it ought. Thus there is one sort of length dimension for masses and another for light. The equations of Relativity may be a device relating to bodies, rather than a physical explanation.
It seems that the crux of the problem lies in the very first interpretation of the observation: that the velocity of light in vacuo is constant irrespective of the velocity of the source or the receptor. This was interpreted as meaning that the velocity of source and observer was always the same relative to the velocity of light in vacuo, which does not follow from the observation.
Another interpretation is as follows. The velocity of light in vacuo is constant, and source and observer can in fact have a velocity relative to a pulse of light which they emit or receive, as in Newtonian physics. This relative velocity can in principle be measured by normal geometrical means i.e. by distance divided time, but this is difficult to arrange because of the problems of measuring time and distance and of synchronisation. Experiments therefore usually depend on measurements of the wavelength of light. However, this is misleading because the mechanisms involved in emitting and absorbing light, and so the wavelength of light in which this results, do not depend on the velocity of source or receptor.
Such an absorption mechanism is described below in the section on light.
This interpretation does not violate Einstein’s thought experiment in which he concluded that it was not possible to travel at the speed of light, because his reflection in a mirror in front of him would disappear when light could not travel fast enough to reach it, and so this would tell him exactly how fast he was travelling without any kind of external reference, which he considered impossible. The later section on mass shows why he could never reach the speed of light for quite different reasons, but not unconnected with light. It also shows that there is indeed a Universal reference in the form of the speed of light in vacuo, against which other velocities can in principle be measured, if a way can be found to do it.
If space is independent of velocity, as we have concluded above, the argument can be extended to radioactive decay. It is possible to construct a clock based on radioactivity, as on any other repeatable physical process. The probability of radioactive decay is always the same for each nucleus of a radioactive species, so that the number of radioactive nuclei of a species in a population which decays depends only on the number present i.e. radioactive decay is exponential with respect to time, however measured. The rate of decay may be measured with a clock i.e. exogenously, or it may be measured against an endogenous time-interval (2).
But decay events are independent of each other; there is nothing between decay events occurring in vacuo. Thus, by the preceding argument, there is nothing to dilate. Therefore a clock based on the number of decay events cannot show time-dilation.
However, time-dilation is apparently observed with atomic clocks in space, since they run slower on GPS satellites. The corollary is that the processes which are inherent in atomic clocks and/or their transmission through space are affected by their environment in space. These are essentially all electromagnetic processes. Under the same conditions in space a radioactive clock ought to show either no time-dilation, or if radioactivity is affected in some way, a different response from electromagnetic phenomena.
Either result would suggest that dilation of time is a meaningless concept, as implied by the preceding analyses. It would be individual phenomena, especially electromagnetic phenomena, which are affected.
simplified Universal system
velocity of light limit for mass
constant velocity of light a problem
irrespective of velocity of source or receptor
But new theory is that mechanisms do not involve their velocity
Velocity of light in vacuo is a Universal reference
use radioactive decay to measure time-intervals
nothing between events to dilate
time-dilation an electromagnetic pheomenon
dilation of the time dimension a meaningless concept
Copyright A. C. Sturt 2005