Books and publications on the
interaction of systems in real time by A. C. Sturt
by A. C. Sturt
New models of atomic and nuclear structure suggest that forms of electromagnetic radiation should occur which have much higher frequencies than those observed by current methods of detection, which are ultimately electronic. Unseen radiation may need some reconciliation with the Planck equation which relates to the energy of electromagnetic radiation. It may also affect energy balances in some of the current propositions of physics. Black holes may provide explanations. Such radiation is termed ‘omega-radiation’ in the paper for the purposes of analysis.
According to the Planck equation, the energy of electromagnetic radiation is directly proportional to its frequency. This is a relationship which in essence has been determined by measuring the amount of ‘damage’ which electromagnetic radiation produces in a receptor. However, if the proposed new theory of light holds good (1), it may raise some profound questions about the current analyses of physics.
The new theory is that electromagnetic radiation consists of rotating electromagnetic dipoles or REDs which are formed by electromagnetic induction in the medium of space, caused by the vibration of bonds between particles. The frequency of rotation of the RED is the same phenomenon as the frequency of oscillation of electromagnetic radiation in the ‘wave’ theory of light. It was shown how the interaction of REDs could explain both the apparent ‘particle’ and ‘wave’ behaviour of light.
In this model the rotating electromagnetic dipoles are not themselves energy. Their role is to transport energy through space from the vibrating bonds that give rise to them to similar bonds with which they can interact i.e. from source to detector. The form of the interaction is not a billiard-ball type of mechanical collision between RED and receptor, but a resonance induced in the receptor bond. This resonance relates the frequency of vibration of the receptor bond to the frequency of the RED, and hence to the frequency of the bond which emitted it at the source. It is this generation of light by vibrating bonds which gives rise to the apparent quantisation of light energy, because each bond by its nature, perhaps reinforced by location, has a defined frequency of oscillation in its excited state.
The frequency of rotation of REDs may decrease or ‘redshift’ in transit through space, and this may be a condition of acceptance by bonds which are already in various states of excitation, even if their natural frequency of resonance matches. However, the corollary is that, if a dipole does not meet a bond with which it can resonate, it continues on its path until it does.
The energy of electromagnetic radiation is then measured by the change which it produces in the receptor. Radio frequencies, which are at the low end of the spectrum, resonate at the level of loosely bound or ‘free’ electrons, which does very little ‘damage’ to the receptor, and so they have low energy. Microwaves which have higher frequencies resonate with the more tightly bound structures of atoms, so as to cause transitions between electronic states. Resonance of light at visible frequencies, which are higher again, causes the displacement of electrons which are still more tightly bound to the nucleus, and so they are yet higher energy transitions. At some stage the resonance is with the electronic structures closest to the nucleus, and may even draw on the structure of the nucleus itself. Hence ‘damaging’ X-rays and, still higher energy, gamma-rays.
To some extent the arguments about the definitions of energy levels may become circular, because each RED resonates only with bonds of the appropriate resonant frequency. To show conclusively that energy is proportional to frequency, both have to be measured independently of electromagnetic effects, say by thermal measurements for energy and by metre rule for ‘wavelength’ or frequency. This is true, whatever theory of light is used.
If proportionality is established by these independent means, it may be safely concluded that the Planck energy correlation holds good for these frequencies.
However, if the model is correct, the question arises: what, if anything, happens beyond the frequency-range of current methods of detection? Does the energy level of electromagnetic radiation depend on its being detected? Detectors are either macroscopic materials at the level at which we can conveniently handle or observe them, or else individual atoms with electronic transitions related to states of spin.
There are three possibilities:
Omega-radiation ought to be possible, if there exists a medium of space with a polarisable microgranular nature, as has been proposed elsewhere (2). According to this theory, a rotating electromagnetic dipole is composed of microgranules with aligned polarities which are transferred from microgranule to microgranule as the dipole travels through the medium of space. There is no limit to the sort of space in which microgranules could occur, which suggests that they must penetrate even down into the interstices between the most fundamental of particles. The corollary is that microgranules must be much smaller than fundamental particles themselves.
If microgranules can polarise and align to form REDs at conventional wavelengths, there seems to be no reason why REDs should not form from the vibration of much shorter bonds. In geometrical terms, polarised microgranules could form smooth circular dipolar alignments at much smaller radii of curvature than the wavelengths of visible light, say down to only two or three orders of magnitude greater than the size of fundamental particles.
REDs from short bonds would be detectable only by similar bonds in a receptor. They would not necessarily produce the electronic changes which are the normal basis of detection. They would be ‘omega-radiation’.
Black holes may provide support for the existence of electromagnetic radiation which is of the same order of magnitude as fundamental particles. According to current observations, black holes do not emit electromagnetic radiation, nor are they transparent to it. Their presence is inferred from the behaviour of visible matter which comes into proximity with them; the orbits of stars are distorted for no apparent reason, which leads to the conclusion that the phenomenon must be caused by enormous gravitational attraction by an invisible mass.
The absence of light from black holes is attributed to this extremely high gravitational attraction, which prevents even light escaping to the outside and being emitted. The theoretical basis for this explanation is Einstein’s Theory of Relativity.
However, it is possible to envisage an alternative mechanism at work.
The argument is as follows:
Observations suggest that black holes do not emit electromagnetic radiation. Either they do not generate electromagnetic radiation, or they are prevented from emitting it, or current observation fails to detect what is emitted.
The suggestion here is that black holes are composed of a sort of plasma of fundamental particles in which the extremely high temperatures have stripped away the structures which normally inflate materials. Thus electrons and nuclei are not held at arm’s length, but pack close together like particles in a dense gas, moving at very high speeds in close proximity. Nor in this furnace does it stop there; atomic components are progressively broken down until the plasma is composed entirely of fundamental particles. Gravitational forces pull the particles together to create enormous pressures and densities of mass with accompanying electric and magnetic fields so as to form probably spherical, coherent, perhaps spinning masses. The same gravitational forces act externally to exert the enormous gravitational attraction on stars in the neighbourhood, which is what is observed.
In such a plasma there are no specific bond lengths to generate recognisable quantised frequencies. However, fundamental particles are travelling in gaseous fashion at speeds comparable to the speed of light and generating radiation with a continuous, black-body type of spectrum of frequencies by the mechanism proposed in (1). These are emitted but not observed with current detection methods, whence the term ‘black hole’. This is what has been described above as omega-radiation.
Current observations show that black holes are not transparent to electromagnetic radiation. However, there must be sources beyond black holes on the line to Earth, and their light must enter black holes, but none is observed on Earth to come from the direction of black holes. Black holes are opaque to electromagnetic radiation.
The reason proposed here is that the REDs incident on the black hole cannot cause the progressive orientation of polarisable microgranules which we detect as light. The forces and turbulence in the body of the plasma of the black hole are so great that microgranules are held in some kind of ultimate web, which prevents their reorientation. Incident REDs simply run into the sand.
This process can be construed as one stage in the Universal cycle of stochastic regeneration of matter proposed in a previous paper (3).
- Black holes as described above pull matter into them because of their enormous gravitational attraction.
- The high temperature of the plasma in black holes strips the matter down to fundamental particles.
- This process reduces the temperature of the ‘furnace’ and its ability to deintegrate more matter.
- Lower temperature allows fundamental particles to associate to form larger particles with structures.
- Structure dilates the mass and reduces its density.
- At some stage the mass cannot deintegrate even the simplest atom, and hydrogen forms. Possibly a small proportion of helium also forms, on a statistical basis.
- What is observed then is not a black hole but a hot hydrogen cloud.
- Reduced gravitational attraction allows the hydrogen cloud to disperse and cool.
- It then looks like any other cloud of hydrogen in the cosmos.
- Clouds of hydrogen agglomerate, stars and galaxies form.
- Galaxies collide.
- Sometimes the collisions are so severe that they produce temperatures high enough to strip matter down to fundamental particles, which is a black hole.
- The circle is complete. The process starts all over again from the beginning.
The whole process is driven at the cosmic scale by the kinetic energy of masses in perpetual motion. Nothing in the cosmos is stationary, collisions are bound to happen. However, according to this model, matter may be reduced to fundamental particles by any process which produces high enough temperatures. Thus the extreme conditions which produce supernova explosions and gamma-ray bursts may also play a part.
The model of this analysis rejects the interchangeability of mass and energy, which is considered to be a meaningless concept. Mass resides in particles, energy is the vibration of bonds between particles, electromagnetic radiation conveys energy through the medium of space from source-bond to receptor-bond. The Universe is infinite in time and space.
The engine of change in the Universe is ultimately kinetic in the form of galactic collisions. What is lost on the swings is gained on the roundabouts, so that energy in the Universe is always conserved, neither created nor destroyed. Energy is always measured by difference, because it relates to change from one state to another. Energy changes in any subsystem are arithmetically additive.
The particle model of matter implies a hierarchy of particles down to the most fundamental. If electromagnetic radiation is the vibration of particle-particle bonds, the corollary is a matching hierarchy of frequencies. Detectors which rely on electronic or even nuclear effects may not capture the entire range of frequencies, if some relate to smaller particles and as a consequence are much higher i.e. ‘omega-radiation’.
In this case the only alternative is to measure their energy by the difference between the total output and the known inputs of processes. Some reconsideration of such relationships may be necessary as a result of new proposed models of atomic and nuclear configurations (4), and new proposed mechanisms of transmission of electric, magnetic and gravitational forces at a distance (5).
However, it is conceivable that the frequency of omega-radiation might be brought down into the range of detectors by electric, magnetic means and new techniques being used in conjunction with low temperatures.
8 May 2005
Postscript: The Detection of Energy Conveyed by Electromagnetic Radiation
The following argument is implicit in the model used in this paper:
- The velocity of light in vacuo is a constant determined by the medium of space.
- Absorption of light by a receptor is a resonance effect.
- What is seen when making measurements with a detector is the consequence of absorption of a RED, say, light re-emitted by the bonds of the detector itself, displacement of an electron etc i.e. a way of shedding the extra energy.
- When a RED is absorbed, the result detected is independent of the velocity of the receptor relative to light i.e. the velocity of the receptor is not manifested in the characteristics of the light observed, just its resonance.
- That does not mean that the receptor cannot move with respect to a RED moving at the speed of light i.e. the receptor can have a velocity relative to the speed of light.
- This relative velocity may affect whether the RED is absorbed or not, irrespective of resonant compatibility.
- If a receptor moves towards a source of light at a velocity of c/3, it will have a velocity relative to an oncoming RED of 4c/3.
- If the RED is captured by the oncoming receptor, the receptor bonds will resonate with their characteristic frequency, in which the receptor’s velocity plays no part.
- However, by analogy with spacecraft landing from orbit i.e. mechanically, the RED may not be able to engage with the receptor if the relative velocity is too high, in which case it will just flip out of orbit again, and proceed on its way i.e. the light is simply not seen.
- These cannot be the only consequences of the resonance mechanism because a RED may be slowed down, deflected or reflected by interaction with the structure of a receptor, most obviously at the electronic level.
- Nevertheless the essential point remains that it is frequency which is transferred by REDs, not velocity.
- After absorption of a RED, re-emissions from stimulated receptor bonds may occur in more than one direction. The decrease of intensity implicit in this sort of scatter may appear in measurements as absorption.
10 May 2005
energy judged by
effect on receptor
what if beyond the range of conventional detectors?
either no higher frequencies
or fails to produce resonance
or not energetic enough to produce result
medium of space microgranular
microgranules smaller than fundamental particles
much smaller wavelengths possible
difficult to detect
do not emit radiation, not transparent
contains plasma of fundamental particles
no bond lengths
turbulence prevents orientation of microgranules into REDs?
regeneration of matter
reduced to fundamental particles
reassociation to form larger particles
star and galaxy formation
black holes and fundamental particles formed
driven by kinetic energy
model rejects interchangeability of mass and energy
hierarchy of particles implies hierarchy of electromagnetic frequencies
absorption of RED
see effect on receptor i.e. re-emission
velocity of receptor relative to speed of light
may not be seen
frequency transfer, not velocity
changes of direction on re-emission
Copyright A. C. Sturt 2005