
Books and publications on the
interaction of systems in real time by A. C. Sturt 


Gravity, Inertia, Electric Charge, Magnetism and Electromagnetic Radiation – A Possible Approach to a Combined Model 


by
A. C. Sturt 




2.The properties of
gravity 3.Masses with constant
velocity relative to each other 4.
Gravitational effect of constant acceleration of a mass 5.
Multiplication of emanations a. Confirmation
of the classical relationships at high velocities and accelerations c. Subatomic
and fundamental particles 2.The properties of
gravity 3.Masses with constant
velocity relative to each other 4.
Gravitational effect of constant acceleration of a mass 5.
Multiplication of emanations d. Confirmation
of the classical relationships at high velocities and accelerations f.
Subatomic and
fundamental particles 

This is the end of
tears
No more lament! Sophocles Summary A model is developed which links gravity, inertia,
electric charge, magnetic fields and light. The analysis begins with a new
approach which imposes a velocity of change on the gravitational attraction
expressed in Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation. It concludes that
acceleration of mass causes distortion of the medium of space which results
in the emission of electromagnetic radiation. This is consistent with a previous
analysis which develops the concept of a Universal inertial field that
resists acceleration of mass. A distinction is drawn between the medium of
space and space itself, which is considered to be Cartesian. A key element of the analysis is a hypothesis that the
medium of space is filled with what are termed gravitational microentities,
which are much smaller than fundamental particles. In space each microentity
is polarised in its own direction at random. Masses cause them to align, and
it is this alignment which gives rise to gravitational attraction. On this basis a mechanism for inertia is developed, using
the connection between force, acceleration through the medium of space and
electromagnetic radiation. Parallels are drawn between this analysis of
gravity and electric and magnetic phenomena. All these concepts are then
combined in a model which encompasses all levels of mass from subatomic
particles to astronomical masses. Finally, it is speculated that mass itself
may ultimately consist of electric charges. Tests are proposed to link the phenomena and their
interactions, and shed light on the fundamental nature of the medium of
space.
Gravity is the force of attraction between bodies with the
property of mass. Given the definition of mass, the force of gravitational
attraction between two bodies is proportional to the product of their masses.
The gravitational force between them is also proportional to the inverse of
the square of the distance separating them. So if §
m_{1} and m_{2}
are the magnitudes of the masses of two bodies which can be treated as point
masses, §
r is the distance between the
points, and §
G is a constant of
proportionality, then according to Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation,
the force of attraction F between them is given by the equation: Newton used his Law to make extremely accurate predictions
of the orbits of planets in the solar system, and it was later confirmed by
static experiments in the laboratory. The force of gravitational attraction links the two masses
through the medium of space. It is an interaction between the two masses. The
force acts in a straight line, point mass to point mass. It is not influenced
by the force of gravitational attraction between either of these two masses
and another point mass m_{3} i.e. by m_{1}m_{3}
or m_{2}m_{3}. Neither is it influenced by the
gravitational attraction between m_{3} and another mass m_{4}
i.e. by m_{3}m_{4}. The relationship of F to r may be explored
by differentiation in the usual way. Thus as the distance of separation r increases,
F decreases according to the relationship: or simplifying This has the form of a hyperbola with the axes as
asymptotes. As r tends to zero, the rate of change of F with
distance increases rapidly, and at r = 0 it would become infinite,
except that it never touches the asymptote. As r tends to infinity,
the rate of change of F with distance would become zero, except that
it never touches the axis. If the distance r is increasing with time, the rate
of change with respect to time can be calculated from the usual relationship However, this is based on the assumption, which is
inherent in the laws of motion, that expanding the distance between the two
masses is like propagation from a single point; the force would in some way
propagate from one point mass, so that the distance increased with respect to
that mass, which therefore provided the degree of freedom. If this were so,
the question would then be: what role would the other point mass have to
play? The conclusion is that a different model is required. One approach to developing a different model is as
follows. The equation for F has no cutoff point. All masses
in the Universe have gravitational attraction for all other masses. The
interaction exists, however small, whatever the distance. However, if a mass changes position relative to other
masses, it is inconceivable that its interaction should be felt
instantaneously by all other masses, even those an infinite distance away in
another part of the Universe. The hypothesis of this paper is that the
influence of any change of position of one mass must therefore take a finite
time to reach other masses. The corollary is that the effects of gravitational change
have a velocity. The assumption must be that this velocity is the same in
every part of the Universe. The only conceivable velocity which such a
Universal phenomenon could have is the velocity of light through the medium
of space. From this basis it is possible to describe a simple model
which may link the phenomena of gravitational attraction, inertia, electric
charge, magnetism and electromagnetic radiation through a hypothetical medium
of space, drawing on its characteristics as outlined in previous papers (1).
The equation for gravitational attraction implies that if
bodies have mass, they must also have gravitational attraction for each
other, and conversely, if bodies have gravitational attraction for each
other, it is because they have the property of mass. The nature of the
attractive forces of gravity is unknown. However, it is possible to make some
inferences about the nature of the phenomenon of gravity. The gravitational effect is linked by some physical
phenomenon to points of mass. It must be so, because for any point mass the
effect is proportional to the magnitude of the mass. If the effect did not
impinge on the mass in some way, how could this occur? The effect is isotropic and homogeneous through time and
space. It forms a link from every point mass to every other point mass,
wherever situated, and since in this analysis it takes time to reach other
masses, it must also be homogeneous through time. The potential to form a
link is not deflected or prevented by other masses or by any other
phenomenon. As a basis for analysis, it is useful to represent the
potential to form gravitational links as emanations in all directions from a
point mass, or in two dimensions, a circle, (Figure 1). Changes in such
emanations would take time to reach other masses, and so they have a
velocity.
The hypothesis is that a gravitational link between two
masses becomes a force of attraction between them when gravitational
emanations from both coincide in the straight line linking their centres
(Figure 2). This particular coincidence of emanations has no influence on any
other emanations from these masses. The arrow with two heads represents gravitational
attraction between the two masses. The assumption is that the gravitational
force F is equal, opposite and of the same magnitude for both masses
i.e. force is not dissipated in some way en route between masses; there is no
loss due to, say, the spatial equivalent of friction of pulleys.
Thus the mass enters into any number of linkages with
other masses on a onetoone basis, representing forces of gravitational
attraction. If all the point masses in the Universe were stationary relative
to each other, a Universal network of such links could be drawn. Since the
Universe is infinite, every arrow must eventually make contact with a mass at
some distance, somewhere. However, it is most unlikely that all masses in the
Universe are ever stationary relative to each other. 

nature of mass? tests
Universal only between two
masses
assumption of
instantaneous propagation
not instantaneous
propagation velocity of gravity links between
phenomena proportional to mass isotropic homogeneous through
time and space representation as
emanations force of gravity is
linked emanations every mass linked to
every other in the Universe all moving 
Copyright A. C. Sturt 27 September 2001 

Churinga
Publishing 