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Economics, politics, science, archaeology. Page uploaded 10 December 2004

 



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Gravity, Inertia, Electric Charge, Magnetism and Electromagnetic Radiation – A Possible Approach to a Combined Model

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by A. C. Sturt

 

 

 

 

 



 

 

 

 

 

Summary

1. Introduction

2.The properties of gravity

3.Masses with constant velocity relative to each other

4. Gravitational effect of constant acceleration of a mass

5. Multiplication of emanations

6. Electromagnetic radiation

7. Inertia

8. The electric parallel

9. Discussion

10. Experimental tests

a.      Confirmation of the classical relationships at high velocities and accelerations

b.      Interaction of phenomena

c.      Subatomic and fundamental particles

Modelling

11. The ultimate speculation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Summary

1. Introduction

2.The properties of gravity

3.Masses with constant velocity relative to each other

4. Gravitational effect of constant acceleration of a mass

5. Multiplication of emanations

6. Electromagnetic radiation

7. Inertia

8. The electric parallel

9. Discussion

10. Experimental tests

d.      Confirmation of the classical relationships at high velocities and accelerations

e.      Interaction of phenomena

f.        Subatomic and fundamental particles

Modelling

11. The ultimate speculation

 

 

 

 

 

This is the end of tears

No more lament!

Sophocles

 

Summary

 

A model is developed which links gravity, inertia, electric charge, magnetic fields and light. The analysis begins with a new approach which imposes a velocity of change on the gravitational attraction expressed in Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation. It concludes that acceleration of mass causes distortion of the medium of space which results in the emission of electromagnetic radiation. This is consistent with a previous analysis which develops the concept of a Universal inertial field that resists acceleration of mass. A distinction is drawn between the medium of space and space itself, which is considered to be Cartesian.

 

A key element of the analysis is a hypothesis that the medium of space is filled with what are termed gravitational microentities, which are much smaller than fundamental particles. In space each microentity is polarised in its own direction at random. Masses cause them to align, and it is this alignment which gives rise to gravitational attraction.

 

On this basis a mechanism for inertia is developed, using the connection between force, acceleration through the medium of space and electromagnetic radiation. Parallels are drawn between this analysis of gravity and electric and magnetic phenomena. All these concepts are then combined in a model which encompasses all levels of mass from subatomic particles to astronomical masses. Finally, it is speculated that mass itself may ultimately consist of electric charges.

 

Tests are proposed to link the phenomena and their interactions, and shed light on the fundamental nature of the medium of space.

 

  1. Introduction

 

Gravity is the force of attraction between bodies with the property of mass. Given the definition of mass, the force of gravitational attraction between two bodies is proportional to the product of their masses. The gravitational force between them is also proportional to the inverse of the square of the distance separating them.

 

So if

 

§         m1 and m2 are the magnitudes of the masses of two bodies which can be treated as point masses,

 

§         r is the distance between the points, and

 

§         G is a constant of proportionality,

 

then according to Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation, the force of attraction F between them is given by the equation:

 

 

Newton used his Law to make extremely accurate predictions of the orbits of planets in the solar system, and it was later confirmed by static experiments in the laboratory.

 

The force of gravitational attraction links the two masses through the medium of space. It is an interaction between the two masses. The force acts in a straight line, point mass to point mass. It is not influenced by the force of gravitational attraction between either of these two masses and another point mass m3 i.e. by m1m3 or m2m3. Neither is it influenced by the gravitational attraction between m3 and another mass m4 i.e. by m3m4.

 

The relationship of F to r may be explored by differentiation in the usual way. Thus as the distance of separation r increases, F decreases according to the relationship:

 

 

or simplifying

 

This has the form of a hyperbola with the axes as asymptotes. As r tends to zero, the rate of change of F with distance increases rapidly, and at r = 0 it would become infinite, except that it never touches the asymptote. As r tends to infinity, the rate of change of F with distance would become zero, except that it never touches the axis.

 

If the distance r is increasing with time, the rate of change with respect to time can be calculated from the usual relationship

 

 

However, this is based on the assumption, which is inherent in the laws of motion, that expanding the distance between the two masses is like propagation from a single point; the force would in some way propagate from one point mass, so that the distance increased with respect to that mass, which therefore provided the degree of freedom. If this were so, the question would then be: what role would the other point mass have to play? The conclusion is that a different model is required.

 

One approach to developing a different model is as follows.

 

The equation for F has no cut-off point. All masses in the Universe have gravitational attraction for all other masses. The interaction exists, however small, whatever the distance.

 

However, if a mass changes position relative to other masses, it is inconceivable that its interaction should be felt instantaneously by all other masses, even those an infinite distance away in another part of the Universe. The hypothesis of this paper is that the influence of any change of position of one mass must therefore take a finite time to reach other masses.

 

The corollary is that the effects of gravitational change have a velocity. The assumption must be that this velocity is the same in every part of the Universe. The only conceivable velocity which such a Universal phenomenon could have is the velocity of light through the medium of space.

 

From this basis it is possible to describe a simple model which may link the phenomena of gravitational attraction, inertia, electric charge, magnetism and electromagnetic radiation through a hypothetical medium of space, drawing on its characteristics as outlined in previous papers (1).

 

 

  1. The Properties of Gravity

 

The equation for gravitational attraction implies that if bodies have mass, they must also have gravitational attraction for each other, and conversely, if bodies have gravitational attraction for each other, it is because they have the property of mass. The nature of the attractive forces of gravity is unknown. However, it is possible to make some inferences about the nature of the phenomenon of gravity.

 

The gravitational effect is linked by some physical phenomenon to points of mass. It must be so, because for any point mass the effect is proportional to the magnitude of the mass. If the effect did not impinge on the mass in some way, how could this occur?

 

The effect is isotropic and homogeneous through time and space. It forms a link from every point mass to every other point mass, wherever situated, and since in this analysis it takes time to reach other masses, it must also be homogeneous through time. The potential to form a link is not deflected or prevented by other masses or by any other phenomenon.

 

As a basis for analysis, it is useful to represent the potential to form gravitational links as emanations in all directions from a point mass, or in two dimensions, a circle, (Figure 1). Changes in such emanations would take time to reach other masses, and so they have a velocity.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


The hypothesis is that a gravitational link between two masses becomes a force of attraction between them when gravitational emanations from both coincide in the straight line linking their centres (Figure 2). This particular coincidence of emanations has no influence on any other emanations from these masses.

 

The arrow with two heads represents gravitational attraction between the two masses. The assumption is that the gravitational force F is equal, opposite and of the same magnitude for both masses i.e. force is not dissipated in some way en route between masses; there is no loss due to, say, the spatial equivalent of friction of pulleys.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Thus the mass enters into any number of linkages with other masses on a one-to-one basis, representing forces of gravitational attraction. If all the point masses in the Universe were stationary relative to each other, a Universal network of such links could be drawn. Since the Universe is infinite, every arrow must eventually make contact with a mass at some distance, somewhere.

 

However, it is most unlikely that all masses in the Universe are ever stationary relative to each other.

 


 



 



 



new model

velocity of gravity

medium of space
 

hypothetical polarised microentities


link between phenomena

 

nature of mass?

 

tests

 

 


 
classical analysis of gravity
 
 

 



 

 

 

Universal
 




 

 

only between two masses


 


 


 

 

 



asymptotes
 


 





 

 

assumption of instantaneous propagation

 

 


new model

no cut off distance

 

not instantaneous propagation

 

 

velocity of gravity

 

 

links between phenomena

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

proportional to mass

 

 

isotropic

 

homogeneous through time and space

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

representation as emanations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

force of gravity is linked emanations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

every mass linked to every other in the Universe

 

all moving

 

 

 

Copyright A. C. Sturt 27 September 2001

continued on Page 2

 

 

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