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Economics, politics, science, archaeology. Page uploaded 30 December 2004

 



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Electric Charge in a Microgranular Medium of Space:

 

Ultimate Components of the Universe?

 

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by A. C. Sturt

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



Summary

A. Introduction

B. Growth by Inflation

C. Growth by Accretion

D. Principles of Physical Change

E. Fields

F. The New Universal Model Completed

a.      The fundamental composition

b.      The nature of mass

c.      The medium of space

d.      Energy

e.      Electromagnetic radiation

f.        Redshift

g.      The Universal system and Figure 2

G. Tests

a.      Secondary dipoles from redshift

b.      Gravity and light

c.      Gravity and electric and magnetic forces

d.      Gravitational lensing

e.      Laboratory tests

References

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Summary

A. Introduction

B. Growth by Inflation

C. Growth by Accretion

D. Principles of Physical Change

E. Fields

F. The New Universal Model Completed

a.      The fundamental composition

b.      The nature of mass

c.      The medium of space

d.      Energy

e.      Electromagnetic radiation

f.        Redshift

g.      The Universal system and Figure 2

G. Tests

a.      Secondary dipoles from redshift

b.      Gravity and light

c.      Gravity and electric and magnetic forces

d.      Gravitational lensing

e.      Laboratory tests

References

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Summary

A. Introduction

B. Growth by Inflation

C. Growth by Accretion

D. Principles of Physical Change

E. Fields

F. The New Universal Model Completed

a.      The fundamental composition

b.      The nature of mass

c.      The medium of space

d.      Energy

e.      Electromagnetic radiation

f.        Redshift

g.      The Universal system and Figure 2

G. Tests

a.      Secondary dipoles from redshift

b.      Gravity and light

c.      Gravity and electric and magnetic forces

d.      Gravitational lensing

e.      Laboratory tests

References

 

 

 

 

Summary

 

A model of the Universe is built on the hypothesis that the medium of space is microgranular, as postulated for gravity in a previous paper. The present analysis extends the concept to the limit by proposing that ‘fields’, which describe forces acting at a distance, and electromagnetic radiation in fact all have the same microgranular basis. Such microgranules would be identical and polarisable, and fill the entirety of space. They would transmit radiation and gravitational, electric and magnetic forces by rotation in situ, rather than translation. A new theory of light has already been derived as progressive, polarised electromagnetic disturbances in the medium of space caused by an induction process. Bringing these together in the same model means that all changes of force would therefore be transmitted through space at the speed of light. The unifying concept of microgranules suggests mechanisms by which mass and energy would be separately conserved in a Universe which is infinite in time and space. The ultimate unknown then becomes the nature of electric charge. Tests of the hypotheses are proposed both in the laboratory and in deep space, which would require the sending of probes.

 

 

A. Introduction

 

The argument made in previous papers (1,2) concerning ‘particulate’ systems harks back to ancient philosophical discussions of the nature of growth in the physical world. Two fundamental models were considered. Growth might be some kind of swelling or inflation of an entity in a continuous, homogeneous way, or it might be some kind of accretion of smaller entities to form a larger entity.

 

The analysis which stems from this line of thought applies not just to the process of growth but to the process of all change from one physical state to another. The physical phenomena described by science relate to changes of physical state, the processes which underlie nature. The ‘particulate’ hypothesis gives insight into the issues at the most fundamental physical level, that of  a Universal model. First, the problems of the ‘inflation’ model.

 

B. Growth by Inflation

 

This is the argument that a small tree becomes a larger tree, or a small animal becomes a larger animal, by a process of inflation, as if they were balloons. However, it is observed that they both need inputs of food and water to live, and so the question immediately arises: if they are continuous entities, what kind of continuous entity do you pump in to make them inflate? Is this entity still continuous if it goes in as puffs of breath? Or are we to conclude that only some of the features of the physical world are continuous and homogeneous? Moreover, if water imbibed and air inhaled become part of the ‘continuous’ entity which they enter, by what mechanism does this integration occur?

 

To pursue the argument further, how does such a ‘continuous’ entity change shape? What is it that stretches or compresses? If it is growing unevenly, which is in fact the norm, by what mechanism does the growth go off in a different direction, so as to produce a differently shaped structure?

 

Nor are these questions confined to the organic world. Rocks can be smashed to pieces by force, which rather destroys the concept of a continuous entity. But they can be reformed by heat and pressure, and so we are soon back to earth, air, fire and water as the four ‘elements’ of everything physical, though we cannot be precise about what that means.

 

In the non-living world too, crystals as entities seem at first sight to grow by some kind of swelling process. However, they can be made to change shape within certain bounds, while apparently remaining homogeneous. How do they do that?

 

No wonder Democritus came to the conclusion that ‘atoms’ must be the answer.

 

C. Growth by Accretion

 

Science too has concluded that these problems are solved by the model of a ‘particulate’ world. The advent of microscopy showed that living things have a cellular structure, in which the cells may be considered as ‘particles’. Chemistry, and later electron microscopy, showed that all materials, whether organic or inorganic are composed of particles in the form of atoms or as specific combinations of atoms, like water, which are called molecules.

 

So in a ‘particulate’ model, living cells use inputs of food and water to make copies of themselves, which separate from the ‘parent’ to form ‘particles’, and accrete. The inputs themselves are ‘particulate’. The process of the cell changes their state of association to what is needed, which is digestion, and they are then absorbed as ‘particles’ into the structure of the body. We are what we make of what we eat.

 

Stretching and bending occur at the bonds between ‘particles’ i.e. what ‘glues’ them together. The model suggests that the ‘glue’ itself must be ‘particulate’ at some level. It also requires that there must be some ‘give’ to allow change of orientation, what we might now call intermolecular forces.

 

The essence of such processes is:

 

-         oriented structural accretion,

 

-         growth as a time-dependent process,

 

-         a velocity of growth of a structure,

 

-         the facility to change direction of propagation in space,

 

-         the facility to differentiate i.e. vary from ‘particle’ to ‘particle’.

 

So for more specific examples: DNA has spatial configuration all along its length; cell mitosis in which one ‘particle’ divides into two, requires structural orientation to occur in the cell, where the components line up in order at specific points in space; cells vary according to their function, and need time to operate; and bacteria may divide, say, every twenty minutes. In the inorganic world, crystals are assembled like children’s building blocks, provided particular rules of orientation and spacing are observed, which permits them to adopt different shapes within the same basic symmetry. And so on.

 

The particulate hypothesis also applies to translation of a body through a medium. If the medium is continuous, it is not easy to envisage how the body moves through it. The continuity must in some way be broken at the front and repaired at the back. By contrast, the particle hypothesis can readily explain this effect; particles of medium at the front end slip round to the back a few at a time.

 

D. Principles of Physical Change

 

This analysis suggests that, in a particulate world, there are general principles which apply to change from any physical state to another physical state.

 

  1. Structures are formed by the association of species of particles.

 

  1. The particles may have a configuration i.e. a spatial orientation relative to each other.

 

  1. Different configurations of particles form different structures.

 

  1. Configurations of different species of particles form different structures.

 

  1. The association of particles to form structures is time-dependent.

 

  1. The process of change of state therefore has velocity.

 

E. Fields

 

The term ‘field’ is used in Physics to describe the known effects of gravitational, electric or magnetic forces acting at a distance. The concept of fields allows the effects in time and space to be predicted and manipulated mathematically.

 

However, the analyses of the preceding papers suggest that many phenomena would be more easily explained if the medium of space is considered to be particulate or ‘microgranular’. Gravitational, and by implication electric and magnetic forces, would then be transmitted by the orientation of the microgranular structure of space. The implication is that changes of such forces would have a velocity of propagation.

 

Furthermore, if light is transmitted as ‘particles’ or dipolar disturbances through the medium of space, the analysis above suggests that this must also involve a ‘particulate’ phenomenon in the medium of space. The dipole cannot influence the entirety of some continuous medium. It moves through the medium of space at the speed of light, interacting with it throughout its travel at the point which it has reached.

 

Fields represent forces, not energy. Energy is not involved until a force causes movement through space. Thus the gravitational field on Earth exerts a force, but this in itself does not require the expenditure of energy either by the Earth or by its recipients, say ourselves. Energy is consumed or released only when relative movement occurs.

 

This suggests that the hypothetical microgranules of space transmit force without translational motion. Hence the proposal that they are polarised, and that they transmit force by rotating in situ, thus interacting with each other so as to form alignments. The model also suggests that they have a velocity of propagation of change, which is the rate at which re-orientation can take place and be transmitted to neighbouring microgranules.

 

The model also fits the proposal that the electromagnetic dipoles of light are not themselves energy, but transmit energy to any particle of matter with which they interact i.e. any particle of matter which lies on their path through space and is suitably resonant. It is the vibration of the recipient particle of matter which reconstitutes the transmitted energy.

 

The question then arises: if we are postulating a microgranular structure for fields and light, are they the same ‘microgranules’, or are they different entities? What is clear is that the microgranules which transmit gravitational forces are many orders of magnitude smaller than the ‘wavelengths’ of  electromagnetic radiation, simply because they must fill the space between fundamental particles.

 

Electricity already provides a precedent in Physics for the description of particulate phenomena by continuous mathematical functions. Current electricity is the movement of electrons through a conductor. The movement generates a magnetic field, the strength of which is mathematically proportional to the electric current. The magnetic field transmits a force to a magnetic pole.

 

The elementary analysis is as follows. Electric current I is the quantity of electricity Q flowing in time t past a given section of the conductor, so that

 

 

But the quantity of electricity Q is the charge on an electron e- multiplied by the number of electrons n i.e.

 

 

Thus

where n must be an integer.

 

Current electricity is therefore particulate. It can be treated as a continuous mathematical function only because the number of electrons in any current is very large, which results from the charge on an electron being very small.

 

The same reasoning applies to static electricity. The force between plates in  a parallel-plate capacitor is proportional to the product of the charges on the plates, which is essentially an excess of electrons on one plate and a deficiency on the other. The force is mathematically a continuous variable, but it is determined by the number of particles i.e. electrons on the plates.

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

nature of physical growth

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

by inflation?

 

 

 

everything?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Democritus concluded - atoms

 

 

 

science - accretion of particles

 

atoms

 

cells

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

essence of growth by accretion

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DNA

 

mitosis

 

 

 

 

 

motion

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

physical change

 

 

general principles

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

fields as

forces acting at a distance

 

through ‘particulate’ medium of space?

 

velocity of propagation of change?

 

‘particles’ of light

 

 

fields are forces not energy

 

 

microgranules of medium of space rotate in situ

 

 

electromagnetic transmitters of energy

 

 

same microgranules for light and fields?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

current electricity is particulate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

static electricity is particulate

 

 

 

 

Copyright A. C. Sturt 27 September 2001

continued on Page 2

 

 

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