Books and publications on the
interaction of systems in real time by A. C. Sturt
2. An alternative physical model
2. An alternative physical model
A new model of atomic structure is developed using the established laws of electrodynamics. It is shown that uniform motion of an electron in a circle does not cause loss of energy, so that it is sustainable in orbit around a nucleus.
A basic structure is proposed for the hydrogen atom in which the radius of the electron’s orbit is determined by the balance of electrical and gravitational attraction and centrifugal forces. The electron has a speed which is a significant fraction of the speed of light.
The atomic structure gains stability from the generation of equal and opposing magnetic fields by the electron and the nucleus at the axis of rotation of the atom. This requires separation of charges at the nucleus, which in this case is a proton, and rotation at an appropriate rate in the same sense as the electron orbits. Since the proton has mass, it also has angular momentum and may undergo precession. When the electron is displaced from its ground state, it accelerates back towards the nucleus with the emission of quanta of radiation generated by interaction with the medium of space.
At the instant of each emission of a quantum the electron has a constant velocity, which corresponds to the radius of an ‘orbit’. Velocity increases as the electron approaches the nucleus. The quanta emitted increase in energy as the velocity at the instant of emission increases, in accordance with the inertial resistance theory proposed in a previous paper.
The model is extended to the helium atom in which two electrons share the same orbit and travel in the same sense but at opposite ends of the diameter. The nucleus has a planar structure, which makes it easier to envisage a separation of charges than in a proton. The helium nucleus is shown to have a particularly stable structure.
For the next set of higher atomic numbers electrons are added on the principle of equal attraction by the nucleus, least repulsion by other electrons and identical speeds to the first two. The third electron goes into a polar orbit in lithium. The fourth electron goes into the same orbit in the same sense but at the opposite end of the diameter. Subsequent electrons are added in similar pairs in orbits which are great circles in a diagonal north west to south east direction and two other diagonals in planes at 120° to it. The resulting structure is that of the element neon. All ten electrons have the same velocity and distance from the nucleus, which is different from other models.
Stability of such orbits depends on the synchronicity of movement of the electrons to keep them as far apart as possible. When ten electrons are orbiting in this way, there is room for no more; the next electron goes into an orbit of greater radius at a slower speed, which is the beginning of a new shell, and the process repeats itself.
The analysis depends on the interaction of electrons with the medium of space to generate electromagnetic radiation. If the medium of space exists, and can present increasing inertial resistance to the acceleration of mass as velocity increases, it seems possible that it may have similar interactions with other phenomena such as electrical charge and gravity, which permeates everything. Thus other parameters measured under static conditions may also have magnitudes which depend on velocity through the medium of space. It is proposed that tests should be carried out to establish whether this is so, because it may explain the apparent equivalence of mass and energy.
The model is deterministic; it does not require probability distributions of primary particles. It is in effect a return to the familiar Newtonian balance of forces.
The discovery of the electron and the proton led to speculation about where they were located in the atom, and the way in which they interacted. By analogy with the solar system it was proposed that the electron with its negative charge orbited in a circle around the proton with its positive charge and much greater mass. However, this simple model was soon discounted, because in classical physics the electron would radiate electromagnetic energy as a result of its circular acceleration, and so it would collapse into the nucleus, which it manifestly did not, because the essential characteristic of atoms is their stability.
This led Bohr to postulate that electrons did in fact circle around the nucleus, but in certain prescribed orbits which were deemed to have the property that energy was not radiated away, so that they were stable. These orbits represented discrete energy levels. He further postulated that quanta of electromagnetic energy were emitted when the electrons in excited atoms dropped back into lower energy orbits, though not when they rose to higher energy levels.
Bohr’s equation derived on this basis had the same form as equations which were already known to describe the spectroscopic series for the hydrogen atom. When successive integers were inserted into the equation, the three emissions series of the excited hydrogen atom were predicted extremely well. However, the theory had the disadvantage that it was constructed by the application of arbitrary constraints to classical theory, and in the event it was not possible to extend it to atoms with more than one electron, because of interaction between the electrons.
Around this time the concept of uncertainty entered into physics. Light, which had long been considered to consist of waves, was shown also to act as what seemed like particles. Since these two manifestations could not be reconciled, consensus settled for a mysterious state of wave/particle duality.
By analogy with light, the concept of wave/particle duality was extended to electrons, which were certainly particles as in classical physics, but sometimes appeared to behave as waves with the properties of diffraction and interference. The location of an electron became a probability distribution.
Eventually it was concluded that all fundamental particles behaved either as waves or as particles depending on the method of observation. To add to the uncertainty, it was also proposed that mass and energy were related, and under the appropriate conditions they were even interchangeable.
In these circumstances it was not out of the question to consider the electron inside the atom as a wave circling the nucleus. Wave mechanics had the desirable effect of introducing whole numbers into orbits, provided it was assumed that the wave circulated at such a distance from the nucleus that its peaks were always in alignment on each cycle. Waves out of phase would simply have annihilated.
Thus the entire orbit could be represented as a circle of waves in which the wavelength was always exactly the same. There would, of course, be other orbits further away from the nucleus with longer pathways which were also defined in terms of whole wavelengths. The wave concept introduced the whole numbers which Bohr had used, but in a more sophisticated, more general and very successful way.
Previous papers in this series (1) describe a model of the physical world which is quite different from the wave mechanical model. The differences are wide-reaching and profound. They can be grouped in three main areas as follows.
It was shown that such a theory could account for diffraction and interference by a mechanism of orbital deflection through the coincidence of dipoles, and tests were proposed to confirm it (2). If this model holds up, any analogy between light and particle behaviour is totally misleading. Diffraction of electrons, for example, is not wave behaviour, but direct interaction of charged particles with the orbits which are inherent in atomic structures.
None of this can be reconciled with the wave mechanical model of electrons in atoms.
c. When a mass accelerates towards the speed of light, it begins to shed electromagnetic radiation by the induction process of interaction with the medium of space which is described above. As velocity increases, so increasingly greater forces are required to achieve acceleration, a phenomenon which is termed inertial resistance. The consequence is that eventually, when the mass is approaching the speed of light, quanta of radiation begin to be emitted as fast as energy is pumped in to produce acceleration. Hence the limiting velocity of the speed of light (3).
To take account of this, an Inertial Resistance Factor R which increases hyperbolically with velocity is introduced into Newton’s Second Law of Motion. The limiting value of R is the asymptote corresponding to the velocity of light. If this theory holds good, there is no reason to postulate that mass increases with velocity, as claimed in Relativity.
Electrons travel at a fairly leisurely pace in electric current in a conductor; a value of less than 1m per second has been quoted. By contrast electrons in an atomic orbit have been calculated to travel at about a tenth of the speed of light. In particle accelerators they may travel much faster still. Since electrons have mass, the possible effect of an inertial field needs to be taken into account.
Rutherford himself noted that electrons appeared to increase in mass at high velocities.
Taken as a whole the new physical model presents a world which is definitely deterministic.
As a consequence of this analysis, the present paper suggests that the very first step of the traditional classical analysis was in error: the movement of electrons in circles does not necessarily cause loss of energy by emission of radiation. If this is so, an electron could remain indefinitely in stable circular orbit.
As a result it may be possible to construct an electrodynamic theory of the atom using only the conventional Newtonian balance of forces.
However, first it is necessary to identify the assumptions which underlie the classical analysis of gravitational, electrical and magnetic forces, and examine the reasoning which it is suggested led to erroneous conclusions.
particles can neither be destroyed of created
electromagnetic radiation as rotating dipoles
transmits energy through medium of space
not wave mechanics!
accelerating masses shed radiation
limit speed of light
inertial resistance factor R
electrons in a conductor are slow
classical analysis wrong
Copyright A. C. Sturt 27 September 2001