Books and publications on the
interaction of systems in real time by A. C. Sturt
The theory of Doppler shifts has been imported straight from the transmission of sound through gases into frequency changes of electromagnetic radiation, such as the redshift of stars. For instance, it is used as evidence that the Universe is expanding. However the theory is incompatible with ‘particle’ theories of light, such as the photon or, more recently, rotating electromagnetic dipoles (REDs). Doppler requires a continuous medium in which the distance between peaks of waves can expand or contract. This is impossible with particles which are independent, non-interacting entities, because there is nothing between them to expand or contract.
Using the RED theory four sources of electromagnetic radiation are identified: electronic transitions within atoms, electronic transitions between atoms in molecular bonds, free electrons on the surface of conductors and subelectronic transitions. Each has its own mechanism of generation of REDs which produces distinctive characteristics. Only free electrons on conductors seem able to produce Doppler effects under certain conditions. It is concluded that frequency shifts of radiation produced by other mechanisms are caused either by transit through the medium of space or by timing of pulses of radiation.
Astronomical measurements are proposed which may shed some light on the problem, and incidentally on the probability that the Universe is expanding, or what seems more likely from this analysis, in a steady if somewhat violent state.
A previous analysis (1) suggested that there was no mechanism by which astronomical redshift could occur if it was postulated that electromagnetic radiation was particulate by nature. The argument applied whether the ‘particles’ were photons or rotating electromagnetic dipoles (REDs) formed by induction (2). In both theories there is no interaction between ‘particles’ of light; they travel as independent entities. As a consequence there is nothing between ‘particles’ to dilate, which is essentially what redshift amounts to. The conclusion was that any redshift observed occurs within ‘particles’, not between them.
Exactly the same argument applies to what are widely known as Doppler shifts. The term applies to modifications of frequency caused by the velocity of the source of emissions of waves relative to an observer. If the source is receding from the observer, waves are stretched peak to peak and wavelength increases for the observer, which is redshift. If the source is approaching the observer, the observed wavelength is reduced. There is no suggestion that the source itself vibrates at a different frequency. Indeed the Doppler analysis breaks down if that occurs. It is the wavelength which reaches the observer which is modified.
However, if radiation takes the form of particles, emitted independently as separate entities which do not interact with each other, it is the mean distance between ‘particles’ which is increased or reduced by motion of the source. The question then becomes: by what mechanism can a change of distance between ‘particles’ be seen as a change of frequency of electromagnetic radiation by an observer? A further question is whether such a mechanism can be assumed to be the same across the entire electromagnetic spectrum.
The RED theory of light proposes that radiation is emitted when an electron accelerates sufficiently to induce in the adjacent medium of space a dipole, which is then ejected as an independent entity. This is what happens when an atom returns from an excited state, where the electron is further from the nucleus, to the ground state, where the electron is closer to the nucleus, so that its orbital velocity is greater. The point at which this ejection of a dipole occurs is the activation energy of emission. At lower energy levels, polarisation is being induced all the time adjacent to the path of the electron, but dipoles are emitted as radiation only when the activation energy of emission is reached.
If this mechanism holds good, there are only two loci at which observed redshift could occur: at the electron itself or during passage of the RED through the medium of space. To consider the locus of the electron first, if it were the case that redshift occurred at the emitter, say the atom, would an observer travelling next to the atom see a redshifted wavelength? If so, would this mean that all measurements of frequencies of light made on Earth are redshifted to an extent which is characteristic of Earth, because redshift is measured by difference? Furthermore, would energy levels represented by changes of electromagnetic frequencies be as fundamental as normally considered, or would they be characteristic only of the Earth? To establish this would require measurements both on Earth and elsewhere by a technique which did not involve electromagnetic radiation e.g. geometric, in order to separate effects, because all ‘wavelengths’ would be affected.
The corollary of this view of redshift would be that the activation energy of emission depended on the velocity of an atom through space. However, the theory of electromagnetic emission from atoms proposes that the activation energy of emission depends only on the forces of gravitational and electrostatic forces between nucleus and electron, the mass of an electron and its orbital velocity (3). There seems to be no reason why the velocity of the atom as a complete system (as opposed to the velocity of the electron) should affect this.
As a result it was concluded that redshift of light from stars occurred not at the electron but during transit through space; its magnitude was a measure of distance travelled, and the nature of the path, rather than the velocity of the star (4). A test was proposed to measure this using ruby laser light reflected from the Moon. This was chosen as a minimal astronomical distance, which might be long enough to produce a frequency shift, and yet be free from the ambiguity of ‘relativistic’ effects that might occur with man-made satellites (5).
Building on the RED theory of light, it is proposed here that there are in fact four sources of electromagnetic radiation which are different in kind:
- electronic transitions within atoms,
- electronic oscillations between atoms,
- free electrons on the surface of conductors, and
- subelectronic or nuclear transitions.
Electronic transitions occur within individual atoms. A displaced electron accelerates back towards the nucleus under the influence of gravitational and electrostatic attraction. Acceleration causes the emission of a RED, a quantum of radiation which is characteristic of the element and its particular transition. Emission of the RED stops the acceleration, and the electron adopts a constant velocity in an orbit which is stable. The velocity is greater because the electron is pulled closer to the nucleus by gravitational and electrostatic forces. The orbit is stable because these forces exactly balance the centrifugal tendency of the electron, which arises from its mass. Since the process takes place within the atom, and neither atoms nor REDs interact among themselves, emissions from a collection of atoms are individual and stochastic, both in time and direction in space.
Electronic oscillations between atoms occur when they share electrons i.e. in molecular bonds. Vibration of the interacting atoms causes acceleration of electrons from one end of the bond to the other. As vibration builds up, a RED is eventually emitted, a quantum of radiation which in this case is characteristic of the bond. The frequency of the RED depends both on the bond and on its local condition i.e. any local constraints. The direction taken by the RED through space depends on the orientation of the bond in space at the instant of emission.
When the bond emits its quantum of radiation, it returns to a lower energy state from which it may build up again, emit another identical RED, and so on repeatedly. Such emissions are essentially stochastic, depending on the chance concentration of vibration energy at particular points, but they may be linked through a wider material structure. Loss of energy by emission is therefore a loss to the whole structure i.e. it cools it down.
If this is the mechanism, it is not clear how the velocity of a molecule or structure through space could appear in the frequency of emitted radiation. Velocity is a steady state for the structure as a whole.
This is the oscillation of free electrons on the surfaces of a conductor, an ‘aerial’. The essence of the oscillation is that it is forced and systematic. It is not localised with respect to specific atoms or interatomic bonds. Free electrons are caused to move across the surfaces of the conductor by an oscillating electromagnetic field, so that they accelerate from one end of the aerial to the other and back again in a regular motion. As they reach an acceleration sufficient to attain the energy of activation in one direction, they generate a RED in the medium of space adjacent to the aerial by electromagnetic induction, and eject it into space. The oscillating field then accelerates the electrons in the opposite direction, which generates and expels another RED. The direction in space in which REDs are ejected depends on the geometry and orientation of the conductor. In such a mechanism optimum generation would require a match between the dimensions of the aerial and the frequency of oscillation i.e. they would best be tuned.
However the corollary is that the second RED emitted would be oscillating in the opposite direction from the first. The result would be a stream of REDs, each of which is rotating in the exact opposite sense to the one before and the one after. The process is no longer stochastic. The interval between successive REDs is constant and may be very small. The generation and ejection of REDs does not reduce the system to a ‘ground’ state from which energy has to be built up again. The system is driven by a continuous, exogenous supply of energy.
It is possible that REDs in a continuous train, with virtually no space between successive dipoles, might interact so that they stretched or compressed with the spatial velocity of the conductor. This would be a real Doppler effect.
The succession of events described above is similar to the physical model of Maxwell’s equations in which each polarisation generates another beyond it. Whereas the Maxwell model envisages an electric layer which generates a magnetic layer, which in turn generates an electric layer, and so on into space, the RED model proposes alternate rotating electromagnetic dipoles induced in and propelled through the medium of space i.e. ‘particles’ as opposed to layers.
It is unlikely that an aerial system could produce a single string of REDs, and so collisions resulting in dispersion would give rise to an inverse-square law type of decrease of intensity. A maser would then be a device for generating a string of microwave emissions while reducing such collisions to a minimum, in the same way as has been proposed for visible light (6).
A previous paper suggested that there is no reason why electromagnetic radiation should be limited to the transitions of electrons. If atoms are composed of electrons orbiting nuclei, it is likely that similar structures exist at progressively lower levels with particles orbiting other particles down almost to that of fundamental particles. It is likely therefore that every transition involving acceleration of such smaller particles would produce electromagnetic radiation in the same way as electrons, but at a much higher frequency, because the orbits are much smaller and the speeds much higher.
Such radiation would not be detected, because there are no suitable detectors. Everything is currently assumed to happen at the electronic level. The result of these processes would be a large amount of unseen radiation, which has been termed omega-radiation, occurring at the nuclear or subelectronic level (7).
The same arguments then apply as to electronic transitions. RED emissions in the omega range would be independent and stochastic as vibration energy concentrated locally, but they might be modified in the same way as molecular bond emissions, because the bonds are tied into a structure i.e. the nucleus. Likewise between emitted REDs of omega radiation there would be nothing to dilate. There would be no possibility of the translational velocity of the nucleus affecting the frequency of radiation emitted by the mechanism which Doppler requires. And so on.
frequency changes within particles, not between
independent of velocity of atom
conclusion – redshift occurs during travel through space
four different sources of electromagnetic radiation
electronic transitions within atoms
electronic transitions in molecular bonds
free electrons on aerials
stream of REDs
opposite directions of rotation
parallel with Maxwell’s model
inverse square law
very high frequency
orbital speeds greater
problems of detection
nothing to dilate
Copyright A. C. Sturt 2005