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Economics, politics, science, archaeology. Page uploaded 13 December 2004

 



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Light and Gravity Inside and Outside the Solar System:

 

Potential Consequences of ‘Particle’ Deflection Hypotheses

 

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by A. C. Sturt

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



Summary

A. Introduction

B. Light

C. Gravity

D. Homogeneity

E. Tests

References

Appendix 1 - Potential non-homogeneity through space of the frequencies of electromagnetic emissions

Appendix 2 – Radioactive decay

Addendum – More tests of microgranularity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Summary

A. Introduction

B. Light

C. Gravity

D. Homogeneity

E. Tests

References

Appendix 1 - Potential non-homogeneity through space of the frequencies of electromagnetic emissions

Appendix 2 – Radioactive decay

Addendum – More tests of microgranularity

 

 

 

 

Summary

 

Previous papers have put forward the hypothesis that light and gravity at the most fundamental level are ‘particulate’ phenomena which depend on the medium of space. Particles which move are by definition subject to collision and deflection. As a result, if the hypothesis of the ‘particulate’ nature of these phenomena holds good, their manifestations and the algebraic expressions describing them, which we regard as Universal, may in fact be ‘local’.

 

The different kind of model presented here shows how the standard equations may not be valid outside the ‘locality’ in which they were measured i.e. they may not be valid in every part of the Universe at large. In particular, the regions in which inverse-square laws operate, may be clustered around sources for light or masses for gravity, which would make space fundamentally heterogeneous for these phenomena. If this is so, the different laws proposed here may apply between these regions, and give forces of attraction unexpectedly greater than the distances would suggest. The ‘particulate’ hypothesis seems to be consistent with recent observations. Tests of its validity are suggested.

 

A.      Introduction

 

Recent observations suggest that some of the basic tenets of physics may need to be re-examined as their field of application widens. The following examples from astronomy and space illustrate the point.

 

-         Astrophysicists computing from the conventional equations have concluded that what is observed even with the most sophisticated equipment is less than 5% of the mass which must exist in the Universe. The other 95% is apparently unaccounted for (1).

 

-         Moreover, it is calculated from the accepted equations that the centripetal forces of gravity in some spiral galaxies ought to be insufficient to retain the stars in their outer arms, which they clearly do. In addition, it is observed that, whereas the speed of planets decreases as predicted the further they are from the Sun, this does not apply to the speed of stars in galaxies (2).

 

-         Some comets with the furthest points in their orbits at a distance of about a third of a light year from the Sun show signs of being perturbed by some extremely massive object. An unseen planet ten times the mass of Jupiter is one possibility, but the mass has not been identified at present (3).

 

-         The spacecraft Pioneer 10 and 11 are slowing down for no apparent reason as they leave the Solar System. The acceleration is very small but definite (4).

 

The response to these observations has been to conclude that the Universe must contain mass which cannot be seen, called ‘dark matter’, calculated to outweigh the visible mass by a factor of at least five. The apparent anomalies for galaxies are treated to the same sort of reasoning. This enables us to retain the conventional equations, though some have suggested that the situation would be eased if the power of two in the inverse-square law were reduced a little, which would have the desired effect, but not very elegantly.

 

A different aspect of cosmology, the problem of maintaining the model of an expanding Universe, is being addressed in similar vein by introducing the concept of ‘dark energy’, which is detectable only by its consequences i.e. an expanding Universe, and re-instating a constant into Einstein’s equation which he erased because he thought he had made a mistake. ‘Dark energy’ is calculated to form over half of the predicted Universe.

 

The orbits of the comets and the slowing down of the spacecraft are so far just oddities to be noted, and much can be attributed to Relativity, if it is considered to be valid. In fact the Theory of Relativity itself arose out of a similar set of anomalies a hundred years ago, and the theory of the expanding Universe arose from the need to explain why light from virtually all galaxies is redshifted compared with the same spectra on Earth.

 

However, there may be another type of explanation entirely: these divergences from present calculation may arise from our incomplete understanding of the fundamental phenomena involved i.e. light and gravity, derived from relatively small-scale, ‘local’ experiments, which have found inverse-square laws.

 

In fact the reasoning may also apply to electric and magnetic phenomena, which are thought to obey Universal inverse-square laws. The argument concerns what we consider to be the nature of ‘fields’. Or stated otherwise, the fundamental problem may lie in the Universal application of present mathematical principles, the principia mathematica.

 

My recent papers on light (5) and gravity (6) suggest that there could be mechanisms at work which are different in kind. Both postulate the existence of ‘particulate’ entities, which may be conveniently, if loosely, referred to as ‘particles’ on the understanding that they are discrete, identical entities, not continuous ‘variables’, and that the ‘particles’ may deflect each other, but not in the mechanical sense; they are not billiard balls, nor do they obey the laws of mechanics.

 

Although the hypotheses are speculative, they indicate the nature of the sea change which may be required. Furthermore, they point to conclusions which can be tested by observation and measurement.

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

inverse square laws

 

proposed new law

 

tests

 

 

 

departures from classical equations

 

mass in the Universe

 

rapid rotation of galaxies

 

 

 

comet orbits

 

 

 

 

Pioneer 10 and 11

 

postulated ‘dark matter’

 

postulated ‘dark energy’

 

 

expanding Universe

 

Einstein’s constant

 

 

history repeats?

 

 

 

new type of explanation

 

 

electric and magnetic inverse square laws too?

 

 

role of ‘particulate’ entities

 

 

sea change?

 

 

 

 

Copyright A. C. Sturt 27 September 2001

continued on Page 2

 

 

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