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Economics, politics, science, archaeology. Page uploaded 27 November 2004

 



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The Definitions of Physics

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by A. C. Sturt

 

 

 

 

 

 

SUMMARY

1. The Model

2. Distance

3. Time

4. Space

5. Energy

6. Entropy

7. The Medium of Space

8. Light

9. Gravity

10. Mass

11. Inertial Field Effects

12.Conclusions

References

Appendix 1 The Curvature of Space

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SUMMARY

1. The Model

2. Distance

3. Time

4. Space

5. Energy

6. Entropy

7. The Medium of Space

8. Light

9. Gravity

10. Mass

11. Inertial Field Effects

12.Conclusions

References

Appendix 1 The Curvature of Space

 

 

 

 

Summary

 

A previous paper on The Origin of Quanta pointed out the contradiction between the fundamental assumption of all science that the Universe that consists of particles, and arguments that suggest that energy and mass are in some way interchangeable. A new model was presented, and tests were proposed to confirm the main concepts.

 

The present paper is based on the hypothesis that the tests will in fact confirm the validity  of the new model. It draws on two previous series of papers The Timeless Universe and Light and Mass (see www.churingapublishing.com) to pull all the strands together into a coherent, internally consistent whole. On this basis it spells out some unambiguous definitions.

 

It concludes that there exists a medium of space which, together with the particulate structure of matter, gives rise to all the phenomena of physics. If this is so, the apparent interchange of mass and energy works in only one direction: towards energy. Such a prediction can be put to the test experimentally.

 

1. The Model

 

All matter in the Universe is particulate. The particles are not contiguous, but separated from each other by a balance of attractive and repulsive forces, which form bonds between the particles. Energy is the vibration of these bonds. Energy is shed if the vibration of a bond exceeds a certain threshold which is too much for the particle structure to sustain. It then becomes a disturbance of determinate magnitude travelling through space, which is detected as light or electromagnetic radiation.

 

On the assumption that the four tests of the previous paper (1) produce the predicted results,

 

  • Time becomes measurable in terms which cannot vary with changing conditions i.e. there is an absolute measure of elapsed time (2).

 

  • The velocity of light is constant in whatever time-frame or co-ordinate system it is measured, because it is homogeneous through time.

 

  • As a result the distance between particles can be measured in units which are related solely to the absolute measure of elapsed time and the velocity of light. Thus units of particle-to-particle distance also become expressed in absolute terms.

 

  • From absolute measurements of elapsed time and distance, the absolute velocity and acceleration of one particle relative to another can be derived.

 

From this model of the Universe the following definitions and arguments can be made.

 

2. Distance

 

Distance is what separates particles. Distance itself has no beginning and no end; it is infinite and continuous. In the absence of distance, all particles would be contiguous i.e. in the same place. Measured distance is the distance from particle to particle compared with a yardstick. The precision of the measurement depends on the scale on the yardstick.

 

Distances in the same line are additive. In order to allow distances to be related when they are not in the same line but are in the same plane, they are expressed in terms of two dimensions, which are two axes at right angles. If they are not in the same plane, they are expressed in terms of three dimensions, which are three axes at right angles. There are no other dimensions. This is the  Euclidean or Cartesian view of the world.

 

3. Time

 

Time is what allows the sequence of events to occur, so that one event can take place after another. Events occur in the operation of  processes. All processes are driven by energy, so that there is a link between time and energy.

 

Time has no beginning or end; time is infinite and continuous. In the absence of time, all events would be simultaneous. Elapsed time is the period of time which elapses between two events. It is measured by a regular series of events, or clock, against which the duration of other processes can be calibrated. The precision of the measurement depends on the clock. Elapsed times are additive.

 

4. Space

 

Space is defined as the volume enclosed by the three perpendicular axes. Space is infinite because the axes have no beginning or end. Area is the specific plane bounded by distances measured along two perpendicular axes from the same point or origin.

 

Space is not curved; the term is meaningless. Any curvature which is suspected must refer to the path of a particle or disturbance through space, which has to be established by separate argument. Thought experiments which purport to demonstrate curvature are found to be based on erroneous assumptions (Appendix).

 

5. Energy

 

Energy is defined as what drives processes. It is measured both by the direction and by the extent of change which the process brings about.

 

Energy is the vibration of bonds between particles, either in situ or ejected from the particulate structure which gave rise to it and travelling as a disturbance through space, until it is detected as electromagnetic radiation or light. Periods of bond vibration and the velocity of travel through space are the link between energy and time.

 

Quantities of energy are additive. Nothing else would make sense in the wider world.

 

Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it is simply transferred from one particulate structure to another. This transfer may be to another part of the particulate structure nearby, or it may be a transfer across space.

 

 

6. Entropy

 

The thermodynamic concept of entropy refers essentially to localised phenomena, because its fundamental hypothesis is that heat and energy can be transferred outside the system to which it refers. This can be envisaged for a part or subsystem of the Universe, but it cannot apply to the whole Universe itself in this model. There is no outside.

 

The Universe does not cool down so as to become a cold wasteland, because it is continually and stochastically being regenerated (3). What is lost by one subsystem, is gained by another.

 

This is an adiabatic process in the Universe as a whole. Any ‘local’ increase of entropy must be balanced by a decrease elsewhere, which implies some interaction or rate of communication. The total entropy of the Universe does not change.

 


 



 


 



assumptions



medium of space

 
 

particulate universe

energy is vibration of bonds

activation energy of emission of

electromagnetic radiation

 

radiation transmits through the medium of space

 

absolute measurements of time and distance intervals


 
distance separates particles

 

infinite continuous and additive

orthogonal

 

time separates events

 

infinite and continuous

 

time and energy linked
 



space defined



not curved






energy drives processes


vibration of bonds between particles

additive

not created or destroyed

 

transferred


 


entropy localised not Universal

Universe adiabatic not cooling down


 

 

Copyright A. C. Sturt 27 September 2001

continued on Page 2

 

 

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